Should the bread be unleavened and the wine unfermented?

Should the bread be unleavened and the wine unfermented?

The Lord taught (John 4:19-24) that true worship is spiritual. Tangible types were for a past age (see Hebrews 9:9; 10:1). Thus, although they have spiritual significance, we should not attach typical significance to the loaf and the cup. The loaf both reminds us of our Lord's body given for us at the cross (1 Corinthians 11:24) and also represents the unity of the assembly in which each believer partakes of that one loaf (1 Corinthians 10:17). The cup reminds us of the blood of Christ (1 Corinthians 11:25) and represents the basis of our fellowship with God (I Corinthians 10:16, 21).

The bread used at the institution of the Lord's Supper was unleavened bread, but Acts 2:46, 20:11 and (indisputably) 27:35 link breaking bread with the general eating of food. Therefore, we use common bread. The New Testament words for unleavened bread (azumos) and common bread (artos) are different. While Matthew, Mark, and Luke use azumos in their passages giving the institution of the Lord's Supper they use anos when referring to the bread of which the Lord said, "This is My body."

Since the grape harvest was in the Fall (the seventh month) and the Passover at which the Lord's Supper was instituted was in the Spring (the first month) and since there would have been no refrigeration to inhibit the process of fermentation, it is likely that the wine at the last Passover was fermented. In addition, the Lord made water wine (John 4:46). Timothy was told to drink wine (I Timothy 5:23). The word in both those cases is the same word used for wine that causes drunkenness (Ephesians 5:18).

We cannot insist that the loaf be unleavened bread or the cup unfermented wine.

D. Oliver