How does the Holy Spirit work differently in the New Testament compared to the Old Testament?

What is the difference in the Spirit's relationship to believers today as compared with Old Testament believers?

There is a distinction between relations of the Spirit to men before and after Pentecost. This is evident from the Lord's teaching in John 14:16, 17, "He shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you forever... He dwelleth with you, and shall be in you." So in the old dispensation the Spirit was with believers, in the present dispensation He is in them.

Before Pentecost the Spirit was at work fitting men for special service or testimony to accomplish the purpose of God. The Spirit came only on certain individuals (Numbers 11:29). Bezaleel was filled with the Spirit of God for the work of the Tabernacle (Exodus 35:30,31). "The Spirit of the Lord came upon David" (1 Samuel 16:13). Verse 14 of that passage states, "But the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul." David prayed that the Holy Spirit would not be taken from him (Psalm 51:11). This indicates the transient nature of His presence prior to Pentecost. In this age, He dwells permanently in all believers (John 14:17).

J. Abernathy